TU 104-Flown - History

TU 104-Flown  - History

The Soviets introduced in 1956 the Tupelov TU 104. The plane was a modified Soviet Badger bomber.


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Aircraft terminology

Information on aircraft gives the type, and if available, the serial number of the operator in italics, the constructors number, also known as the manufacturer's serial number (c/n), exterior codes in apostrophes, nicknames (if any) in quotation marks, flight callsign in italics, and operating units.

  • 22 March - Hellenic Air ForceLing-Temco-VoughtA-7H Corsair II, BuNo 159676, crashes near Souda, Greece, the first reported A-7H crash. [ 1 ]
  • 24 March - A Royal Air ForceHandley Page Victor K1A, XH618, of 57 Squadron collided with a RAF Hawker Siddeley BuccaneerXV156 during a simulated refuelling. Buccaneer hit the Victor's tailplane causing the aircraft to crash into the sea 95 miles E of Sunderland, County Durham. [ 2 ]
  • 4 April – A USAFC-5A Galaxy, 68-0218, c/n 500-0021, taking part in Operation Babylift, a mass evacuation of children from South Vietnam during the Fall of Saigon, experiences an explosive decompression about 40 mi (64 km) outside Saigon when the rear ramp and pressure door blow out, damaging the plane's flight controls. The plane, carrying over 300 crew, troops, children, and adult escorts, crashes into a rice paddy after the pilot loses control while trying to return to Tan Son Nhut Air Base 138 die, including 127 orphans. [ 3 ]
  • May - Two Vietnam People's Air ForceMiG-19s suffer mid-air collision over Noi Bai airfield, North Vietnam, during practice for air display to celebrate the North Vietnamese victory in the Vietnam War. Both pilots killed while flying (KWF). [ 4 ]
  • 26 August - A Ling-Temco-VoughtA-7D-12-CV Corsair II, 72-0172, of the 23rd TFW, 76th TFS, crashes on an Eglin AFB, Florida, test range during night training mission. Pilot killed.
  • 3 September - A USAFB-52G-85-BW Stratofortress, 57-6493, of the 68th Bomb Wing, Seymour Johnson AFB, North Carolina, crashed near Aiken, South Carolina when the aircraft suffered major structural failure due to a major fuel leak with the right wing separating between the third and fourth engine nacelles, the wing then shearing off the horizontal stabilizer. The bomber rolled inverted and broke apart. Four crewmembers successfully ejected, three KWF.
  • 14 October – An RAFAvro Vulcan B.2, XM645, of 9 Sqn RAF Waddington breaks up over Zabbar, Malta, after a hard landing shears off the port-side undercarriage, piercing a wing fuel tank and starting a fire. The pilot and co-pilot initiate a second landing attempt but eject when they realize that the plane cannot make it back to the runway. The subsequent explosion kills 5 crew members who remained aboard, and an electrical cable severed by falling debris kills a bystander on the ground.
  • 14 October - A USAFF-15A-7-MC Eagle, 73-0088, c/n 0027/A022, of the 555th TFTS, 58th TFTW, crashes W of Minersville, Utah, due to electrical smoke/fire from generator failure pilot ejects safely. This was the first F-15 crash. [ 5 ]
  • 19 November - First of three Boeing-Vertol YUH-61s completed, 73-21656, crashes and is moderately damaged during testing, but two company pilots escape injury. [ 6 ] Cause is found to be failure of tail rotor drive shaft after the main rotor oversped during an auto-rotational recovery. Airframe is repaired. [ 7 ] Now preserved at the Army Aviation Museum, Fort Rucker, Alabama. Type loses competition to Sikorsky UH-60 and airframes four and five are not completed. [ 8 ]
  • 25 November - Israeli Defense Force/Air Force C-130H 203/4X-FBO, c/n 4533, crashed into mountain Jebel Halal, 55 kilometers south-southeast of El Arish, Israel. Pilots were Shaul Bustan and Uri Manor. [ 9 ]
  • December - Ling-Temco-VoughtA-7D Corsair II, 67-14586, c/n D.005, while assigned to Eglin AFB, Florida's 3246th Test Wing, Air Development & Test Center for mission support, suffers engine failure on take-off from Tallahassee Municipal Airport, Florida and makes forced landing, coming down largely intact. Airframe is hauled back to Eglin AFB on a truck, where it is either scrapped or becomes a target hulk.
  • 30 January - A ConvairPQM-102A Delta Dagger, belonging to the Fairchild Corporation according to a press report, crashed on landing at Bob Sikes Airport, Crestview, Florida when the landing gear collapsed. Airframe destroyed by fire. Sperry Flight Systems pilot, Earl C. Pearce, was unhurt. [ 10 ]
  • 25 October - Lockheed SR-71A, 61-7965, Item 2016, lost near Lovelock, Nevada during night training sortie following INS platform failure. Pilot St. Martin and RSO Carnochan eject safely. [ 11 ]
  • 27 October - General DynamicsF-111E-CF, 67-0116, c/n A1-161 / E-2, of the 3246th Test Wing, Armament Development and Test Center, one of two assigned to the base, crashed at Eglin AFB, Florida, upon return from a test mission. Crew, pilot Capt. Douglas A. Joyce, and Capt. Richard Mullane, deployed crew escape module safely and were uninjured. [ 12 ]
  • 21 December - Imperial Iranian Air ForceC-130H c/n 4463, delivered as 5-148, September 1972, renumbered 5-142, November 1973, renumbered 5-8536, 1976, crashed during approach in bad weather to Shiraz, Iran.
  • 20 January - A USCGSikorsky HH-52A Seaguard, 1448, strikes three electrical transmission wires and crashes into the ice-filled Illinois River. The crew had been performing an aerial ice patrol along the Illinois and Mississippi Rivers. The names of the personnel killed in the incident were: LTJG Frederick William Caesar III USN, LTJG John Francis Taylor (CG Aviator #1620), AT2 John B. Johnson, Mr. Jim Simpson (Civilian). The Air Station the aircraft and/or crew were assigned to was AIRSTA Chicago.
  • 3 March - Aeronautica Militare Italiana, Italian Air ForceC-130H HerculesMM61996, c/n 4492, '46-10', of the 46 Aerobrigata, crashed into Monte Serra, 15 kilometers E of Pisa, Italy.
  • 21 June - USNEC-130Q HerculesTACAMO III BuNo 156176, c/n 4280, of VQ-3, crashed in the Pacific Ocean after night take-off from Wake Island.
  • 4 October - First production prototype FMA IA 58 Pucará, AX-03, of the Fuerza Aérea Argentina, crashes during preparations for the 50th Anniversary of the Fabrica Militar de Aviones at Córdoba, due to pilot error. [ 13 ]
  • 27 March - A USNF-14A-70-GR Tomcat, BuNo 158995, 'NK 106', of VF-1, crashes and catapults across scrub grass to come to rest against a concrete highway divider on CA-163 on approach to NAS Miramar, San Diego, California, exploding in flames. Both crew members eject seconds before impact one fatality, no civilian deaths.
  • 4 May - First prototype Have Blue stealth test bed, c/n 1001, on its 37th flight, hit the runway a little too hard at Groom Lake, Nevada and had to lift off for another pass rather than go into a skid, but had bent the right main gear strut. The landing gear had been retracted after the "touch and go", and now the right main gear leg wouldn't extend. Despite many attempts, there was no way to get the gear down. Critically low on fuel, Lockheed test pilot Bill Park decided to eject and let the aircraft crash into the desert. Park suffered a serious back injury and concussion, ending his career as a test pilot. The airframe was bulldozed under the desert. News of the crash leaked to the press, and some vague comments were made about the possible existence of "stealth" aircraft.
  • 19 May - First prototype SikorskyYUH-60A Black Hawk, 73-21650, crashes during testing at the Sikorsky plant, Stratford, Connecticut, killing three company personnel. Army investigation reveals that during routine maintenance the night before the fatal flight, the airspeed sensor for the tailplane actuating system was inadvertently left unconnected. As the aircraft transitioned from hover to forward flight, the tailplane did not automatically change its angle and as speed built up, it forced the helicopter's nose down until an attitude was reached from which recovery was impossible. A manual back-up system was available and functioning, and could have been used to correct the tailplane angle, but for unexplained reasons it was not used, possibly due to failure to analyze the nature of the problem in time. Minor modifications are introduced as a result of this accident. [ 14 ]
  • 8 June - During ammunition certification tests by the Joint Test Force, Air Force Flight Test Center, Edwards AFB, California, Major (later Major General) Francis C. "Rusty" Gideon Jr. in A-10A Thunderbolt II, 73-1669, c/n A10-0006, call sign "Paco 40", makes fourth firing pass of five, 100 rounds per pass, but experiences secondary gun gas ignition in front of the GAU-8 muzzle, causing oxygen starvation of engines necessitating emergency shut-down. Before he can relight the cooling engines, he runs out of altitude and ejects in Escapac ejection seat at 2,000 feet AGL, suffering severe injuries including a broken neck. Aircraft impacts on desert floor, whole sequence filmed from T-38 Talon chase plane. Pilot is treated at a Palmdale, California hospital, and returns to the A-10 cockpit six months later. [ 15 ]Joe Baugher cites crash date of 8 August 1977. [ 8 ]http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mD3Y_Qcqulw&NR=1&feature=fvwp
  • 12 August – Avro Vulcan B2XL390 of 617 SquadronRoyal Air Force crashed during an air display at Naval Air Station Glenview, Illinois, United States, after apparent stall during a wing-over, coming down in landfill just N of Willow Road. All four crew members killed. [ 16 ]
  • 23 January - Aeronautica Militare Italiana, Italian Air ForceC-130H HerculesMM62000, '46-14', c/n 4497, of the 46 Aerobrigata, jumped chocks during engine run-up, hit tree, written-off. Parts used to support c/n 4491, MM61995 damaged in hard landing, Pisa, January 1999. Hull at Milan-Malpensa, Italy, December 1979, 1989.
  • 1 February - Pakistani Air ForceC-130B Hercules23488, c/n 3698, former USAF 62-3488, coded 'P', registered AQ-ACP, then AS-HFP, jumped chocks during night engine test run, collided with C-130E 10687, c/n 4117, former USAF 65-10687, coded 'D'. Both written off, hulls at Lahore, June 1981.
  • 20 April - Two USAFF-111F-CFs of the 48th Tactical Fighter Wing, 70-2367, c/n E2-06 / F-06, and 73-0714, c/n E2-90 / F-90, based at RAF Lakenheath, suffer mid-air off the Scottish coast while on a training mission over the Dornoch Firth's Tain bombing range, all four crew surviving in what was described as a double "miracle" escape. Both crews escape in each plane's two-seat crew ejection modules. Flotation bags on the Peluso/Schlitt module became partially dislodged soon after landing and the module submerged under several feet of water. The other crew module became inverted immediately after hitting the water and remained inverted on the water's surface until the arrival of a fishing vessel. At that time the crew activated self-righting bags that partially righted the module. The crew then exited the module and, assisted by a RAF rescue parajumper, climbed aboard the fishing vessel before being hoisted to a RAF rescue helicopter. The fishing vessel arrived in the area of the crew modules approximately 40 minutes after the collision, with the rescue helicopter from RAF Lossiemouth arriving several minutes later. [ 21 ] A Nimrod maritime patrol plane monitored from overhead. All four crew were flown by helicopter to RAF Lossiemouth, 40 miles NE of Inverness. All four returned to Lakenheath later that day. They were identified as Capt. Stephen R. Ruttman, of Norman, Oklahoma, Capt. Timothy A. Schlitt, of Afton, Missouri, Capt. Roger L. Webb, of Staunton, Virginia, and Capt. Joseph Peluso, of Rosedale, New York, all of them 28. [ 22 ]
  • 11 July - Second LockheedHave Blue stealth testbed, c/n 1002, was lost at Groom Lake, Nevada on its 52nd flight when a hydraulic leak set the aircraft on fire. The pilot, Lieutenant Colonel Ken Dyson, ejected safely, but the prototype was destroyed when it impacted 35 miles NW of Groom Lake. Like its predecessor, it was buried under the desert.
  • 23 August - MiG-17F, 002, of the USAF 4477th Test & Evaluation Squadron, Groom Lake, Nevada is lost due to pilot induced loss of control. Pilot Lt. M. Hugh Brown, USN, 31, of VX-4, "Bandit 12", originally of Roanoke, Virginia, enters spin while engaging adversary, U.S. NavyF-5, recovers, but enters second spin too close to ground, irrecoverable, impacts at steep angle near Tonopah airfield boundary, killed instantly. No bail-out attempted. [ 23 ]
  • 9 September - Two Hawker Harrier GR.3s, XV757, piloted by former Red Arrows leader Wing Commander Richard Duckett, and XZ128, piloted by Flt. Lt. C. Gowers, both of 1 Squadron, collide in midair over Wisbech, Cambs., UK. Both pilots eject but wreckage comes down on town, one impacting on Ramnoth Road, destroying three houses and killing former Wisbech Mayor W.E.M. Trumpess, R.W. Bowers, and his son Jonathon, aged 2. The other airframe impacts in New Drove on the outskirts of town, fortunately without further casualties. [ 24 ]
  • 12 December - USAFF-111E-CF, 68-0045, of the 79th TFS, 20th TFW, based at RAF Upper Heyford, crashed in the sea off Wainfleet Range, UK, during night bombing practice, range staff witnessing it dive into the water before the crew could eject. Pilot Capt. R.P. Gaspard and Maj. F.B. Slusher KWF. Gale force conditions prevented discovery of any wreckage for two days. [ 24 ]
  • 24 April - Operation Eagle Claw - A contingent of American military aircraft embarks on a commando raid to rescue a group of American hostages held by Iran. An unexpected sandstorm forces 2 USMCRH-53D Sea Stallion helicopters to divert before reaching the first rendezvous point in the Great Salt Desert of Eastern Iran, near Tabas, and causes serious mechanical damage to a third, prompting commanders to abort the mission. While attempting to evacuate personnel and equipment that had already arrived at the rendezvous point, the pilot of another Sea Stallion, BuNo 158761, loses situational awareness in dustcloud during takeoff and collides with a USAFEC-130E Hercules, 62-1809, c/n 3770, of the 7th ACCS, killing five USAF aircrew aboard the C-130, and three USMC aircrew in the RH-53. [ 25 ] Five other RH-53Ds had to be abandoned at the site after suffering shrapnel damage from the collision. These were BuNos. 158686, 158744, 158750, 158753 and 158758. At least one airframe was assembled from the abandoned helicopters, to join six RH-53Ds supplied by the United States to the Iranian Navy in 1978.
  • July - First prototype Rockwell InternationalHiMAT (highly manoeverable advanced technology) remotely-piloted research vehicle RPV is damaged on its fifth flight when the landing skids break away during touchdown on the dry lakebed at Edwards AFB, California. Repairs are made and flight testing resumes 28 October 1980. [ 26 ]
  • 29 October - A USAFYMC-130H, 74-1683, c/n 4658, outfitted with experimental JATOrockets for Operation Credible Sport, a planned second attempt to rescue American hostages held by Iran, is destroyed when the rockets misfire during a test landing at Duke Field, Eglin Air Force Base, Florida, USA. All crew members survive, but the rescue operation is deemed excessively risky and is cancelled.
  • 29 December - A U.S. Navy pilot ejects from stricken A-4 Skyhawk on flight from NAS Guantanamo Bay, Cuba, after engine failure and fire, spends 30 hours in the water before rescue shortly after midnight on Wednesday, 31 December, from the Atlantic

45 miles S of Bahamian island of Mayaguana by a U.S. Coast Guard helicopter. Two Skyhawks departed Gitmo on routine training mission at 1500 hrs. on Monday, second pilot sees pilot Cmdr. Frank Riordan successfully eject from burning fighter with a good canopy

  • 12 January - Leftist terrorists, the Puerto Rican Popular Army, also known as the "Machete Wielders", seeking Puerto Rican independence, use homemade bombs to destroy eight Air National Guard LTV A-7D Corsair IIs and a retired Lockheed F-104 Starfighter at the Puerto Rico Air National Guard's Muñiz Air National Guard Base, located on the northeastern corner of the Luis Muñoz Marín International Airport in San Juan, Puerto Rico. Three bombs in two planes were removed before they exploded. Security at the base was so slack that the bombers were able to ingress and egress without detection. [ 28 ]
  • 12 January - A United States Marine CorpsF-4 Phantom II crashes into the Atlantic Ocean while attempting a landing aboard the USS Forrestal off Jacksonville, Florida, officials at MCAS Beaufort, South Carolina said on 15 January. The pilot is listed as lost at sea after an unsuccessful search, but radar intercept officer is rescued and reported in satisfactory condition aboard the carrier. [ 29 ]
  • 4 February - A United States Air ForceGeneral Dynamics F-111F, 72-1441, of the 48th Tactical Fighter Wing, crashes on approach to RAF Lakenheath, Bury St. Edmunds, United Kingdom, coming down in an open field in Suffolk. A statement released by the Mildenhall headquarters of U.S. Third Air Force said that pilot and WSO parachuted to safety and were both based at Lakenheath. [ 30 ]
  • 4 March - Two F-4 Phantom IIs of the 401st Tactical Fighter Wing collide near Albacete, Spain, crash in flames, killing two of the four crew. The other two parachute to safety. Both fighters were on a routine training mission from Torrejon Air Base near Madrid. The crash occurred
  • 18 January - Worst accident in U.S. Air Force Thunderbirds Demonstration Team history involving show aircraft, when four T-38As crashed during pre-season training at Indian Springs Air Force Auxiliary Field, Nevada (now Creech Air Force Base). While practicing the 4 plane line abreast loop, the formation impacted the ground at high speed, instantly killing all four pilots: Major Norm Lowry, leader, Captain Willie Mays, Captain Pete Peterson and Captain Mark Melancon. The cause of the crash was officially listed by the USAF as the result of a mechanical problem with the #1 aircraft's control stick actuator. During formation flight, the wing and slot pilots visually cue off the #1 lead aircraft, completely disregarding their positions in relation to the ground. The crash of a team support C-123 Provider on 10 October 1958 killed 19.
  • 2 April - An Armada de la República Argentina (ARA) Westland Lynx HAS.2 from the 1ra Escuadrilla Aeronaval de Helicópteros supporting the Argentinian invasion of the Falklands/Malvinas crashes into the sea near the ARA Santísima Trinidad. [ 39 ]
  • 20 April - LockheedF-117A, 80-785, crashes on take-off on its first test flight at Groom Lake, Nevada, due to crossed wiring of the yaw controls, coming to rest inverted adjacent to the runway. Lockheed test pilot Bob Ridenhauer survives with serious injuries and retires from test flying. He has to be cut out of the overturned cockpit section. This was the first loss of a production Nighthawk and occurred prior to Air Force acceptance. This was almost exactly the same wiring mistake that caused the loss of a Lockheed A-12 on 28 December 1965.
  • 22 April - During the Falklands/Malvinas conflict, British SAS troops deployed from HMS Antrim, attempt to reconnoiter Fortuna Glacier on South Georgia island in preparation for recapture by UK forces but are hit by bad weather. One Westland Wessex 3, and two Westland Wessex 5 helicopters attempt a rescue in difficult conditions. After loading the troops, one Wessex 5 crashes on the glacier but all aboard survive. The personnel are then redistributed onto the other two helicopters, whereupon the second Wessex 5 also crashes on lift-off, leaving seventeen stranded on the glacier (thirteen SAS and four helicopter crew). The Wessex 3 navigator Lt. Chris Parry, returning to the glacier as nightfall comes on, loads 17 into a helicopter able to carry 5, returns to the Antrim, which is pitching in a rough sea, and pilot Lt. Cmdr. Ian Stanley crashes the Wessex onto the deck, concluding the rescue of the seventeen stranded men, who would likely have perished had they not been evacuated from the glacier. Pilot Stanley and two other airmen are awarded the DSO for the rescue operation, although the Ministry of Defense suppresses news of the loss of three three helicopters. [ 40 ]
  • 6 May - Royal NavySea Harrier FRS.1s, XZ452 and XZ453 of 801 Squadron on combat air patrol from HMS Hermes of the Falklands task force, collide in poor visibility killing pilots Lt. Cmdr. John Eyton-Jones in 452 and Lt. Alan Curtis in 453. [ 41 ]
  • 19 May - A Royal NavyWestland Sea King HC4ZA294 was transferring from HMS Hermes to HMS Intrepid during the Falklands/Malvinas conflict crashes into the sea after a bird strike with a Black-browed Albatross. The crash resulted in 22 fatalities including 18 members of the 22 Squadron SAS, 1 fatality each from the Royal Signals and Royal Air Force. [ 42 ]
  • 25 May - A RAFF-4 Phantom II piloted by Roy Lawrence and Alistair Inverarity was engaging an RAFSEPECAT Jaguar piloted by Steve Griggs in training exercises. During the encounter the Phantom shot a live AIM-9 Sidewinder forcing the Jaguar pilot to eject.
  • 2 June - A Royal Air ForceAvro VulcanXM597 on Operation Black Buck during the Falklands/Malvinas conflict is forced to divert to Brazil after breaking a refuelling-probe. The aircraft was interned at the Brazilian air force base, Aérea de Santa Cruz, Rio de Janeiro and was allowed to leave 9 days later due to the arrival of Pope John Paul II on a pastoral visit to Brazil. [ 43 ]
  • 6 June - Westland Gazelle AH1XX377 is shot down by friendly fire from HMS Cardiff (D108) during the Falklands War
  • 22 June - Magyar Légierō, Hungarian Air ForceMil Mi-24D, 113, crashes, killing one crew. [ 44 ]
  • 27 July - A USAF Sikorsky HH-53C69-5782 from the 1551st CCTW at Kirtland AFB crashed following a descent from a night time refueling mission, four killed. [ 45 ][ 46 ]
  • 11 September - At an airshow in Mannheim, Germany, celebrating the 375th anniversary of that city, a United States ArmyCH-47C Chinook, 74-22292, carrying parachutists crashed, killing 46 people. The crash was later found to be caused by an accumulation of ground walnut shells that had been used to clean the machinery. [ 47 ][ 48 ][ 49 ]
  • 14 November - A Mitsubishi T-2B, 19-5174, of the Blue Impulse (or 11 Squadron) air demonstration team of the Japanese Air Self-Defense Force fails to pull out of a descending bomb-burst maneouver following a formation loop, crashes into civilian house, Takaoka Town, Hamamatsu City, Shizuoka Prefecture, N of Hamamatsu Air Base, during base's 30th anniversary air show, killing pilot Capt. Takashima Kiyoshi. Thirteen civilians injured, 28 civilian houses and about 290 cars damaged. [ 50 ][ 51 ] Footage: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=j3-m8tIf97A&feature=related
  • 29 November - Shortly after completing a training mission, a USAFB-52G-130-BW Stratofortress, 59-4766, suffered hydraulics fire in nose gear, exploded at the end of the runway at Castle AFB, California, but crew of nine escaped before it was fully engulfed. Aircraft commander ordered evacuation as soon as he learned of the wheel fire. [ 52 ][ 53 ]
  • 6 December - Magyar Légierō, Hungarian Air ForceAntonov An-26 "Curl" crashes at Szentkirályszabadja, one of six on strength. [ 54 ]
  • 9 January - One of two USAFF-4C Phantom IIs sent to intercept a private Beechcraft Baron that strays into restricted ADIZ zone off the North Carolina coast, collides in poor visibility with light-twin piloted by Waynesboro, Virginia lawyer Henry H. Tiffany, the jet's wing slicing through the Baron's fuselage and cabin, killing all seven on board. The F-4C returns safely to Seymour-Johnson AFB near Goldsboro, North Carolina. Pentagon report, prepared by the National Guard Bureau of the Army and the Air Force, issued 18 May 1983, notes that Tiffany, 47, en route from vacation in the Bahamas to Norfolk, Virginia, had failed to adhere to his flight plan, and also failed to notify controllers when he entered the restricted air space 20 miles S of MCAS Cherry Point, North Carolina. Phantom pilot, Capt. John A. Wellers, was found to have closed on the Beechcraft at higher than intended speed while doing radar search and was faulted for failure to maintain 500 foot vertical separation as per instructions. The report notes that the Aerospace Defense Command radar operators at Fort Lee, Virginia gave Wellers incorrect altitude data about his target, and that personnel at the FAA's flight control center in Leesburg, Virginia and military controllers at Fort Lee "were slow to react or acted improperly in the process of identifying the unknown aircraft." [ 55 ] Flamboyant lawyer Tiffany had been imprisoned for two months in 1978 after a plane he was piloting was forced down with engine trouble in Haiti with more than a ton of marijuana on board. U.S. drug authorities said later that Tiffany was implicated in a major Northern Virginia smuggling ring. In fact, on the fatal flight, Tiffany was by-passing his flight plan's required U.S. customs stop in Florida and was attempting a direct flight to Norfolk, said a National Transportation Safety Board report issued 23 August 1983. [ 56 ]
  • 27 January - Five are killed and eight injured when a USAF Boeing B-52G Stratofortress, 57-6507, of the 319th Bomb Wing, catches fire and explodes at 0930 hrs. on the ramp at Grand Forks AFB, North Dakota. The Stratofortress was undergoing routine fuel cell maintenance after flying a training mission the previous night. [ 57 ]
  • 28 April - A USAFA-7D of the Virginia Air National Guard, based at Richmond International Airport, crashed near Richmond, Virginia, shearing unoccupied house in half and setting second structure on fire. Pilot Capt. Robert Welch, 30, of Atlanta, Georgia, ejected just before impact, suffering a slight back injury. [ 58 ]
  • 1 May - During air-to-air combat training over the Negev Desert, an Israeli Air ForceF-15D Baz collides with an A-4 Skyhawk at between 13 and 14 thousand feet altitude, causing the attack jet to explode (the pilot reportedly successfully ejected), and tearing of the starboard wing of the fighter

2 feet outboard of the engine nacelle. Pilot Zivi Nedivi goes to afterburner to try to stop spinning aircraft, and unaware of the condition of the jet due to fuel leaks obscuring the extent of the damage, makes a blistering 250-260 knot landing at nearest air base, tearing off the arrestor hook and coming to a stop just six feet from the runway threshold. Pilot later comments that had he known the true state of the aircraft, he and his weapons operator would have ejected. F-15 is reportedly repaired and returned to service in

  • 26 April - United States Air Force Lt. Gen. Robert M. Bond (1929-1984), Vice Commander of Air Force Systems Command, is killed in a high-speed ejection from a MiG-23 out of Groom Lake, Nevada at 1018 hrs., which was initially reported to be an F-117A Stealth fighter. The MiG impacted on Little Skull Mountain on the remote Nellis AFB range in a high-speed 60-degree dive. Following this accident, officers of General rank were prohibited from test flying.
  • 29 August - Second prototype Rockwell B-1A Lancer, 74-0159, of the Air Force Flight Test Center, Edwards AFB, California, crashes 22 miles NE of the base, in the desert E of Boron, California, when control is lost during an aft centre of gravity test. Rockwell test pilot and the flight commander is killed when escape pod parachutes fail to fully deploy, module impacting in a right nose low attitude. The Co-pilot and flight test engineer are badly injured.
  • 30 August - A United States Navy Noth American T-2C Buckeye crashes into the Chesapeake Bay shortly after takeoff from NAS Patuxent River, Maryland, killing the student and seriously injuring the instructor. [ 60 ]
  • 10 October - The first of three Northrop F-20 Tigersharks, N4416T, during a world sales tour, crashes at Suwon Air Base, South Korea, killing Northrop chief test pilot Darrell Cornell. During the last manoeuvre of the final demonstration flight at Suwon, the aircraft stalled at the top of an erratic vertical climb and dove into the ground from 1,800 feet. High-G pilot incapacitation was suspected as the cause, as the investigation found no evidence of airframe failure. [ 61 ]
  • 16 October - An unarmed USAF Boeing B-52G Stratofortress, 57‑6479, of the 92nd Bomb Wing out of Fairchild AFB, Washington, crashed about 2100 hrs. into a mesa on the Navajo reservation in northeastern Arizona 13 miles NE of Kayenta, during a low-level training flight. Eight crew eject and recovered in a day one ejects, missing gunner KWF. [ 62 ]
  • 9 February - An armed USAF Fairchild A-10A Thunderbolt II, 78-0723, crashed into a cliff in Oak Creek Canyon just north of Sedona, Arizona during a morning rainstorm. A military demolitions crew was sent in to recover unexploded munitions and the canyon was closed to traffic for several days. The lone pilot, attached to the 354th Tactical Fighter Wing at Myrtle Beach Air Force Base, South Carolina, was killed. [ 63 ][ 64 ]
  • 29 March - Two Canadian Forces Lockheed CC-130H Hercules, 130330 and 130331, both of 435 Squadron, crashed after having a mid-air collision over CFB Namao, near Edmonton, Alberta. This is the only dual Hercules mid-air. [ 65 ][ 66 ]
  • 3 April - First Kamov V-80-01, prototype of Kamov Ka-50 Hokum, '010', crashes, killing the pilot. [ 67 ]
  • 20 April - USAF North American CT-39 Sabreliner suffering from defective brakes, runs off runway at Wilkes-Barre-Scranton International Airport, Pennsylvania, goes down 125-foot embankment, burns, killing all five on board.. [ 68 ]
  • 14 May - Second of three Northrop F-20 Tigersharks, N3986B, during stopover at Goose Bay, Labrador, en route to the Paris Air Show, crashes at 1350 hrs. Atlantic Daylight Time at the end of sixth practice flight of the day, in circumstances much like the loss of the first prototype on 10 October 1984. Hesitating in the inverted position at the top of a series of 9G vertical rolls, airframe dove erratically into the ground, coming down in an upright, wings-level, nose-up attitude on snow-covered ground, killing Northrop test pilot Dave Barnes. Again, G-induced pilot unconsciousness was suspected, investigation finding no sign of airframe failure. [ 61 ]
  • 27 June – An RAFLockheed C-130 Hercules and a Royal NavyWestland Sea King helicopter collide in cloud north of the Falkland Islands, at around 300 ft. The Hercules lost the wing beyond its #1 (port outer) engine but still managed to land. The Sea King, based at RNAS Culdrose, was lost and all four on board killed. [ 69 ][ 70 ]
  • 13 July – Blue Angels Aircraft 5, BuNo 155029, and 6, BuNo 154992, (Douglas A-4F Skyhawk) collide at the top of a loop at 1532 hrs., Niagara Falls International Airport, New York, during the Western New York Air Show '85, killing Lt. Cmdr. Michael Gershon. Second pilot, Lt. Andy Caputi, ejects safely with only minor injuries. One Skyhawk crashed on airport grounds while the second fighter impacted in a nearby auto junkyard. [ 71 ][ 72 ] The demonstration team resumes show duties 20 July at Dayton, Ohio but omits maneuver that resulted in crash, and flies with five planes rather than six. [ 73 ]
  • 8 August -A USAF LTV A-7D Corsair II, 69‑6198, of the 4450th Test Group, lost power, caught fire and crashed into Midwest City, a suburb of Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, pilot Maj. Dennis D. Nielson staying with aircraft as he attempted to steer it towards less-populous area before ejecting, but fighter impacted house, killing one, injuring one, one missing, said a United Press International report. [ 74 ] Second victim found on 9 August. [ 75 ]
  • 8 August - A USAF General Dynamics F-16 Fighting Falcon crashed during a training mission in northwest Utah, killing the pilot. [ 76 ]
  • 15 November - A United States Navy turboprop Convair C-131H Samaritan, BuNo 542817, of VR-48, Naval Air Facility, Washington, D.C., crashes shortly after takeoff from Napier Field, Dothan, Alabama, killing two pilots of the Navy's Fleet Logistic Support Squadron, Andrews AFB, Maryland, and a flight engineer, also of Andrews AFB. [ 77 ][ 78 ]
  • 12 December – Arrow Air Flight 1285, a chartered Douglas DC-8-63CF, N950JW, crashes just after takeoff from Gander, Newfoundland, Canada, killing 256 people, of whom 248 were soldiers in the United States Army 101st Airborne Division returning from overseas duty in the Sinai desert, Egypt. This remains the greatest peacetime loss of military personnel in US history. [ 79 ]
  • 16 December - F-15D Eagle, 84-0042, of the 3246th Test Wing, Armament Development and Test Center, Eglin AFB, Florida, crashes in the Gulf of Mexico, 53 miles SE of Eglin. [ 80 ] The Armament Division commander, Col. Timothy F. O'Keefe, Jr., and Maj. Eugene F. Arnold, an instructor pilot with the 3247th Test Squadron at Eglin, eject safely. [ 81 ]
  • 28 January - The first U.S. multiple in-flight spaceflight fatalities. The Space Shuttle Challenger, OV-099, is destroyed 73 seconds after lift-off on STS-51-L. Analysis of the accident showed that a faulty O-ring seal had allowed hot gases from the shuttle solid rocket booster (SRB) to weaken the external propellant tank, and also the strut that held the booster to the tank. The tank aft region failed, causing it to begin disintegrating. The SRB strut also failed, causing the SRB to rotate inward and expedite tank breakup. Challenger was thrown sideways into the Mach 1.8 windstream causing it to break up in midair with the loss of all seven crew members aboard: Greg Jarvis, Christa McAuliffe, Ronald McNair, Ellison Onizuka, Judith Resnik, Michael J. Smith, and Dick Scobee. NASA investigators determined they may have survived during the spacecraft disintegration, while possibly unconscious from hypoxia at least some of them tried to protect themselves by activating their emergency oxygen. Any survivors of the breakup were killed, however, when the largely intact cockpit hit the water at 200 mph (320 km/h). See Space Shuttle Challenger disaster.
  • 12 February - A USAFF-16 Fighting Falcon, flown by a pilot of the 3247th Test Squadron, disappears from Eglin Air Force Base's radar tracking screens at 1230 hrs., crashing in the Gulf of Mexico
  • 27 February - Royal Air ForceBoeing Chinook HC1ZA721 crashed in the Falkland Islands, all seven on board killed. [ 90 ]
  • 21 March - Dean Martin's son Dean Paul Martin (formerly Dino of the 60s "teeny-bopper" rock group Dino, Desi & Billy) dies when his F-4 Phantom II fighter crashes into San Gorgonio Mountain in the San Bernardino Mountains during a snow storm while flying with the California Air National Guard. His WSO (Weapons Systems Officer), Ramon Ortiz is also KWF.
  • 24 June - RAFSEPECAT Jaguar GR.1A, XZ386, '05', of 226 OCU, suffers loss of control/controlled flight into terrain three miles (5 km.) SE of Builth Wells, Powys, Wales. Pilot KWF. [ 91 ]
  • 17 September - KC-10A Extender, 82-0190, c/n 48212, written off in ramp fire after explosion while undergoing maintenance at Barksdale AFB, Louisiana, killing crew chief. [ 92 ]
  • 22 September - A U.S. NavyF-14A-70-GR Tomcat, BuNo 162707, of VF-74 out of NAS Oceana, Virginia Beach, Virginia, operating from the USS Saratoga, accidentally shoots down a USAFRF-4C-22-MC Phantom II, 69-0381, 'ZR' tailcode, of the 26th Tactical Reconnaissance Wing, out of Zweibrucken Air Base, West Germany, at 1550 hrs. EDT over the Mediterranean Sea during a NATO exercise, DISPLAY DETERMINATION. Both RF-4C crew eject, pilot Capt. Michael Ross of Portsmouth, Ohio, and WSO Lt. Randy Sprouse of Sumter, South Carolina, both of the 38th TRS, and are rescued by a helicopter from the Saratoga within 30 minutes, suffering numerous injuries. A Navy spokesman said that the F-14 downed the RF-4C with an air-to-air missile, but did not know whether it was a Phoenix, a Sparrow or a Sidewinder. [ 93 ] This was likely due to insufficient information being relayed to the spokesman recovery of the F-14 aboard Saratoga makes it obvious the missile was an AIM-9 Sidewinder. When told by the Saratoga's Admiral that they had been shot down, Sprouse remarks "I thought we were supposed to be on the same side?" to which the Admiral replies "We're sorry about this, but most of the time we are." The Tomcat pilot is duly disciplined and permanently removed from flying status. [ 94 ]
  • 14 October - An F-117A Nighthawk, 83-815, piloted by Maj. Michael C. Stewart, callsign BURNR ("burner") 54, crashes at 2033 hrs.,
  • 25 February - A US Army CH-47 Chinook helicopter crashes outside Chico, Texas, killing 10 soldiers and injuring 8. The helicopter caught fire mid-flight and the brave pilots attempted an emergency landing, but the billowing smoke and passenger movements made it impossible. The helicopter hit the ground at 150 mph, breaking apart in a sheet of fire.
  • 24 April - Marine Corps Colonel Jerry Cadick, then commanding officer of MAG-11, was performing stunts at the MCAS El Toro Air Show before a crowd of 300,000 when he crashed his F/A-18 Hornet at the bottom of a loop that was too close to the ground.[20] The aircraft was in a nose-high attitude, but still carrying too much energy toward the ground when it impacted at more than 300 mph (480 km/h). Col. Cadick was subjected to extremely high G forces that resulted in his face making contact with the control stick and sustaining serious injury. He broke his arm, elbow and ribs, exploded a vertebra and collapsed a lung. Col. Cadick survived and retired from the Marine Corps. The F/A-18 remained largely intact but was beyond repair. [ 100 ][ 101 ]
  • 6 May - CH-53D with Marine Heavy Helicopter Squadron-46 crashed into South China Sea killing all 17 on board.
  • 6 May - Royal Air ForceBoeing Chinook HC1ZA672 hit a pier at Hannover Airport while taxying and was destroyed, 3 crew killed. [ 102 ]
  • 12 July - U.S. NavyCT-39E Sabreliner, BuNo 158381, c/n 282-93, ex-N4701N, en route from Singapore to Subic Bay Naval Station, Philippines, comes down in the afternoon in the South China Sea near the Spratly Island archipelago, after radioing a distress signal of equipment failure. Vietnamese Navy ship (described by Joe Baugher as a fishing vessel) picks up three American crew, two men and one woman, said a spokesman at the Vietnamese embassy in Bangkok on 15 July, and took them to Vietnam where they were being "treated very kindly". Arrangements would be made to repatriate the crew. At this time the United States and Vietnam had not yet reestablished diplomatic relations. [ 103 ]
  • 17 August – A PAFC-130B Hercules, 23494, 'R' (ex-USAF62-3494), c/n 3708, crashes near the Pakistani town of Bahawalpur, killing everyone aboard, including the President of PakistanGeneral Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq, American Ambassador to PakistanArnold Lewis Raphel, Head of Pakistan's military intelligence General Akther Abdul Rehman and nearly all of the top military brass of the Pakistan Army.
  • 28 August – Ramstein airshow disaster: Three of the ten Aermacchi MB-339PAN jets from the Italian Air Force display team Frecce Tricolori collide in mid-air in front of the audience while performing their 'pierced heart' formation. One aircraft crashes directly into the crowd. Sixty-seven spectators and all three pilots are killed and 346 seriously injured in the resulting explosion and fire.
  • 12 September - An F-14A-95-GR Tomcat, BuNo 160409, of VF-143 [ 104 ] , (also reported as VF-124) suffers an all hydraulic system failure and crashes inverted into a hangar at Gillespie Field, a civil airport in El Cajon, California, San Diego County. The Pilot managed to point the crippled jet towards the landing strip at Gillespie Field to reduce civilian casualties, and both him and his RIO ejected, suffering injuries. The RIO landed in power lines. The crash killed 5 on the ground.
  • 5 December - A U.S. NavyEA-6B Prowler goes missing over the Pacific Ocean during training exercise 900 miles off San Diego. Search fails to find any sign of the four crew. [ 105 ]
  • 6 December - A USAFB-52H-150-BW Stratofortress, 60-0040, crashed on the runway at 0115 hrs. EST at K.I. Sawyer AFB, Michigan, while doing touch-and-goes after a seven-hour training flight. No weapons were aboard the bomber, which broke into three parts. All crew survived, crawling or being helped from the nose section, without sustaining burns. [ 105 ]
  • 8 December – Remscheid plane crash: An USAFA-10 Thunderbolt II crashes into the West German town of Remscheid. The pilot and five residents are killed, and a further 50 people injured.
  • 4 July - A "runaway" SovietMiG-23M "Flogger-B"crashes into a farmhouse in Belgium, killing an 18-year-old man.
  • 6 July 1989 - One of two F-15 Eagles of the 33rd TFW, Eglin AFB, Florida, engaged in 2V2 (two versus 2) aerial combat maneuvers with two F-16 Fighting Falcons of the Alabama Air National Guard, crashes at 1456 hrs. near Lamison, Alabama, a small community

80 miles SW of Montgomery, the pilot, Capt. Leo Moore of the 58th Tactical Fighter Squadron, ejecting safely. Moore, unhurt, is rescued less than an hour later, said Sandy Mau, a Selma Times-Journal reporter, by an Air National Guard helicopter vectored to him from Danley Field by the F-16 pilots who were flying close enough to Moore to pinpoint his location, said S/Sgt. Dave Beaulieu, 33rd TFW spokesman. Tim Henderson, of nearby Millers Ferry, said that he saw Moore's jet flying low across his pasture minutes before the crash. "It was flying maybe a little over the treetops, very low," Henderson said. "He wasn't flying very fast to be flying so low, and it kind of sounded like the engine was cutting out." The fighter impacted on a ridge in a rural, virtually inaccessible area and Air Force investigators were having difficulty reaching the site, said Mau. The Eagle was completely destroyed. "It just burned up," said Beaulieu. The two F-15s had departed from Eglin at

1410 hrs. to rendezvous with the F-16s. Moore's fighter was carrying an inert infrared-guided Sidewinder, Beaulieu said. He didn't know how much training the airmen got in before the crash, which occurred

  • 12 January - USMCA-4M Skyhawk of VMA-131 crashes on approach to NAS Willow Grove, Pennsylvania, coming down in Upper Moreland Township, impacting in an intersection, debris tearing off roof of an auto-leasing business, destroying four autos, and damaging six houses, but no injuries on the ground. Pilot Capt. Duane Pandorf, 35, parachutes into tree, suffering only minor injuries. [ 118 ]
  • 23 January - Mid-air collision between two Blue AngelsF/A-18 aircraft during a practice session at El Centro. One airplane, Angel Number 2, BuNo 161524, piloted by Capt. Chase Moseley (ejected) was destroyed and the other, Angel Number 1, badly damaged but managed to land safely. Both pilots survived unharmed. [ 119 ]
  • 6 February - A USAFF-111E-CF, 68-0001, c/n A1-170 / E-11, crashes into the North Sea off the east coast of England during a routine training mission, killing two crew. The Third Air Force identified the crew as pilot Capt. Clifford W. Massengill, 30, of Edenton, North Carolina, and WSO 1st Lt. Thomas G. Dorsett, 26, of Pensacola, Florida. [ 120 ]
  • 7 February - A USAFA-10 Thunderbolt II crashes in the Black Mountains of Wales,
  • 24 January - A-7E Corsair II, BuNo 158830, 'AC 403', of VA-72 has the dubious distinction of being the last of the type in US Navy service to need a barricade landing aboard a carrier when the nose gear was damaged on catapult launch from the USS John F. Kennedy, CV-67, at start of mission 12.41 against a target in western Iraq, losing one tire. Pilot, Lt. Tom Dostie, succeeds in hooking 1-wire and aircraft snags safely in barricade. Since the A-7 type was about to be retired, airframe is stripped for parts and buried at sea 25 January with full military honors, but refuses to sink until strafed by air wing jets. [ 126 ]
  • 3 March - US NavyCT-39G Sabreliner, BuNo 160057, c/n 306-107, ex-N56798, crashed at 1145 hrs. in a neighborhood
  • 6 February - A Kentucky Air National GuardC-130B Hercules, 58-0732, c/n 3527, of the 165th Tactical Airlift Squadron, stalls and crashes into the JoJo's restaurant and Drury Inn while practicing touch and go maneuvers at the Evansville, Indiana Airport. All five crew members and nine people on the ground were killed. Several others were injured.
  • April - A Marine Corps CH-46 suffers a catastrophic explosion and crashes into the Red Sea, killing four Marines including the pilot and injuring eight Marines.
  • 15 April - A U.S. NavyT-2C Buckeye crashes in the Gulf of Mexico shortly after launch from training carrier USS Forrestal, operating

1000 hrs. and transported him to Eglin Regional Hospital where he was checked out and released at

75 miles N of Puerto Rico while returning to the USS John F. Kennedy CV-67, killing all five crew. The Navy reported on 1 August that the aircraft radioed that it was in trouble before coming down


Delete all Location History

  1. On your Android device, open the Google Maps app .
  2. Tap your profile picture or initial Your Timeline .
  3. In the top right, tap More Settings and privacy.
  4. Under "Location settings," tap Delete all Location History.
  5. Follow the on-screen instructions.

Delete a range of Location History

  1. On your Android device, open the Google Maps app .
  2. Tap your profile picture or initial Your Timeline .
  3. Tap More Settings and privacy.
  4. Under "Location settings," tap Delete Location History range.
  5. Follow the on-screen instructions.

Delete a day from Location History

  1. On your Android device, open the Google Maps app .
  2. Tap your profile picture or initial Your Timeline .
  3. Tap Show calendar .
  4. Select which day you want to delete.
  5. Tap More Delete day.
  6. Follow the on-screen instructions.

Delete a stop from Location History

  1. On your Android device, open the Google Maps app .
  2. Tap your profile picture or initial Your Timeline .
  3. Tap Show calendar .
  4. Select the day with a stop you want to delete.
  5. Tap the stop you want to delete Delete .
  6. Follow the on-screen instructions.

TU 104-Flown - History

I bought my grandson what I thought was a cool kit. a Makedo T-Rex that was on a good sale. If you haven't seen the Makedo products, they consist of pre-printed and cut cardboard pieces and plastic screws that hold them together. Assembly is easy as you proceed attaching all items tagged in a numerical order. Up to three pieces are attached with the back one being smaller so the screw bites in. The result is about 18" tall. My grandson loved building stuff but for some reason showed no interest. So, I finally built it myself.

The T-Red has been staring at me ever since and I swear I hear it saying is saying, "Fly me." Those legs and the tail look like fins to me. I haven't quite decided to potentially sacrifice it. I'm thinking I should be sure the grandson won't miss it. Even then, the goal would be to make no permanent mods to the T-rex other than a hole in the head for the launch rod.

My thoughts are to remove the bottom structure and install a tube with motor mount installed. Ejection would be out of it's mouth so I'd need to fab a bend in said tube. A cap would be fashioned to plug the tube. I'd make card board pieces that would be glued to the motor tube and screwed into the existing structure with the Makedo screws. Thus, the guts could be removed and the original base reattached. This, of course, assumes it survives and is partly why I don't want to muck with his T-Rex.


Plan Your Visit

The National Museum of African American History and Culture is now open to the public. As we begin a gradual, phased reopening for the museum, we’re putting safety first with enhanced measures in place to ensure the safety and well-being of visitors, volunteers, and staff. Free timed-entry passes are required for entry.

Hours

During the initial phase of reopening, the National Museum of African American History and Culture is closed on Monday and Tuesday and open Wednesday through Sunday from 11 a.m. to 4 p.m., except December 25.

Free Timed-Entry Passes

Visitors can reserve timed-entry passes online or by phone 1-800-514-3849.

Here are a few things to keep in mind:

  • All visitors, regardless of age, must have a timed-entry pass to enter the museum.
  • Veterans, active-duty personnel and first responders must reserve a timed-entry pass in advance of their visit.
  • A limited number of timed-entry passes are available.
  • Visitors can reserve timed-entry passes up to 30 days in advance on a rolling basis.
  • Advanced timed-entry passes are released daily beginning at 8:00 a.m. EST.
  • Same-day timed-entry passes are released at 8:15 a.m. EST daily.
  • Visitors can reserve up to six timed-entry passes maximum for personal use. Tour Operators must contact [email protected] before reserving passes.
  • Timed-entry passes may not be sold or transferred and are for personal use only.

Additional Information

  • For the safety of our visitors and staff, groups larger than six are prohibited.
  • All children (under the age of 18) must be accompanied by an adult chaperone. At least one adult chaperone is required to accompany up to five children.
  • Timed-entry passes are valid only for the issued date. Passes are void if altered.
  • Visitors can print timed-entry passes at home or present them on a mobile device. All passes will be scanned prior to entering the museum on Madison Drive, NW.
  • If you cannot visit the museum on your scheduled date, you may cancel or exchange your pass for another day by calling 1-800-514-3849 or completing this form.

Safety Measures

We ask that all visitors, including those who have been vaccinated against COVID-19, follow these safety measures to protect everyone’s health. Visitors who do not adhere to safety policies and guidelines may be asked to leave.

If Sick, Stay Home

We’re asking all visitors who are sick or feel unwell to please stay home. If you are at increased risk of severe illness, you may also want to consider staying home.

Face Coverings

Visitors ages two and older are required to wear a face covering in all indoor spaces. Fully vaccinated visitors are not required to wear a face covering outdoors. Face coverings may be removed while eating or drinking in designated spaces. Face coverings should fit properly, covering the nose, mouth and chin with no large gaps on the outside of the face (i.e., no bandanas), and they should have a minimum of two layers (i.e., not a single-ply gaiter). Face shields are not permitted as a substitute for a face covering but may be worn over a face covering or mask. Face coverings or masks with an exhalation valve are not permitted.

Social Distancing

We’re implementing safe social distancing, including one-way paths and directional guidance. Please maintain a safe social distance of six feet or more between households or groups at all times.

Number of Visitors

We’re limiting the number of people in our museum, galleries, restrooms, and elevators to allow for safe social distancing. We are using timed-entry passes and limiting the number of people to allow for safe social distancing.

Hand-sanitizing Stations

We’re providing hand-sanitizer stations for visitors throughout our facilities and conducting enhanced cleaning measures frequently.

Personal Belongings

Please note that we do not offer coat, bag, or locker storage at this time. We encourage you to limit the number of personal belongings and bags you bring into our facilities as they will be subject to a thorough search. Limiting the items you bring will increase your speed through security checkpoints, helping us all maintain a safe social distance. We have installed protective safety shields at bag-check screening stations and registers.

Touring the Museum

Some exhibitions, interactives, and indoor spaces may be closed or operate at limited capacity to ensure the safety of our visitors.

Galleries & Interactives

  • Most seated theaters, including the Oprah Winfrey Theater and Corona Pavilion, remain closed to visitors.
  • Larger objects such as the segregated Southern Railway Car and Edisto Island Slave Cabin remain closed to visitors.
  • Some exhibitions and interactives, including the Reflection Booths, Genealogy Database, Arc Interactive, São José Interactive, Green Book, Power of Place, Neighborhood Record Store and In the Studio, remain closed to visitors. The We Return Fighting: The African American Experience in WW1 exhibition closed on September 6, 2020.
  • Some galleries that remain open are designed with narrow entrances and pathways, as well as low ceiling heights, in order to create an intimate and close experience. The museum requires visitors to follow one directional flow in these areas and posts signage accordingly to allow for social distancing.

Museum Maps

Entering & Exiting the Museum

  • Please do not arrive before the entry time on your timed-entry pass.
  • Timed-entry passes will be scanned at the visitor entrance on Madison Drive, NW.
  • Visitors with timed-entry passes will be able to enter the museum until 3:00 p.m.
  • For everyone’s safety, all visitors are required to pass through screening at the entrance to the museum. Please see a list of prohibited items in the museum before planning your visit.
  • Limiting the items you bring will increase your speed through security checkpoints, helping us all maintain a safe social distance. Please note that we do not allow visitors to enter with large bags or luggage and do not offer coat, bag, or locker storage at this time.
  • Visitors are required to use the exit located on Constitution Avenue, NW when leaving the museum.

Dining & Shopping

The museum store is open, however the Sweet Home Café remains closed until further notice. Hand sanitizer stations are available for use upon entry and exit of the museum store.

Frequently Asked Questions

Review our Frequently Asked Questions for more information about planning your visit and what to expect when you arrive at the museum.

Tours & Programs

All on-site public tours and programs are currently suspended. The museum will continue to offer virtual programs and experiences. Please check our upcoming events for specific dates and details.

Download Our Mobile App

Connect to our free WiFi network, "SI-Visitor" and download our mobile app as a complement to your museum visit and as a way to more easily discover the many additional stories in our collection.

COVID-19 is an extremely contagious disease that is believed to mainly spread from person-to-person contact. The Smithsonian is doing its part to mitigate transmission intensity, and we ask you, our visitors, to do the same and help us reduce the spread of COVID-19. You must follow all posted instructions while visiting the Smithsonian, including instructions about wearing face coverings and social distancing. Despite these measures, the risk of contracting COVID-19 could increase by visiting the Smithsonian. By visiting the Smithsonian, you voluntarily assume all risks related to exposure to COVID-19.

The Smithsonian reserves the right to modify its hours of operations, capacity, or visitor guidelines as circumstances require and to deny entry or access to any person who fails to follow these guidelines or whose conduct puts Smithsonian staff, visitors, or property at risk.


TU 104-Flown - History

Bridge on the River Kwai

Train crossing the wooden bridge which spanned the Mae Klong River (renamed Kwai Yai River in 1960).

This eleven span bridge had been dismantled by the Japanese and brought to Tamarkan from Java in 1942. Both bridges wee subjected to numerous attacks by Allied aircraft during the period December 1944 to June 1945. One span of the steel bridge was destroyed in a raid mid February 1945. Two more spans were dropped during raids between April and June 1945. (cont'd below)

Aerial photograph of the Bridge over the River Kwai, Thailand, severely damaged by aerial bombing.

Cont'd. Tamarkan POW camp was located adjacent to both the bridges and a nearby Japanese anti-aircraft battery. It also suffered during these air raids, the worst being on 29 November 1944. During this attack on the Ack Ack battery, three bombs overcarried and demolished the top ends of POW huts 1 and 2, burying a number of the occupants.

The POW casualties numbered nineteen killed and sixty eight wounded. During a four hour attack on the bridges and Ack Ack battery on 5 February 1945, a further fifteen POWs were injured. The camp site was littered with great fragments of shrapnel, and one hut and the canteen were burnt to the ground. On 14 February 1945, the Japanese evacuated the remaining POWs to the Chungkai camp which was located approximately two kilometres north on Kanchanaburi, on the bank of the River Kwai Noi.

The Wampo tiered viaduct built along the edge of the Kwai Noi River.

1. During the Second World War the Japanese Army constructed a military railway line branching off the southern line at Nong Pladuk (also known as Non Pladuk) Station, Km.64+196.

This line crossed over the River Kwae Yai at Kanchanaburi, traversed along the bank of Kwae Noi River, cut across the Thai-Burma border at Chedi Sam Ong, continued on into Burma and joined the Burma railway line at Thanbyuzayat. The total length of line constructed was 419 kms., being in Thailand 303.95 kms. and in Burma 111.05 kms.

2. Construction work started in October 1942. A year later on 23 October 1943 rail laying was completed. About 60,000 men consisting of Indian, Burmese, Malaysian, Indonesian, Chinese and Thai labourers as well as prisoners of war took part in the construction work.

3. The diesel power traction car shown here was used during the construction. It could be run either on road or railway track. The road wheels would be lowered into position when required. The steam locomotive shown was employed for military transport service on this line.

Wampo is approximately 114 kilometres north of Nong Pladuk, or 300 kilometres south of Thanbyuzayat.

A diesel rail car passing over the long trestle bridge commonly known as the Wampo viaduct.

4. In speeding up construction work the Japanese Army built a temporary railway bridge across the River Kwae Yai downstream close to the existing bridge. After completion of the existing bridge composing of 11 steel spans with the rest of timber spans, the temporary bridge was dismantled to ease off river traffic inconvenience. Three steel spans nos. 4, 5, 6 were damaged by allied bombing during the war period. After taking over the line the State Railway of Thailand replaced the three damaged spans with two steel spans and changed all timber spans at the far end with six steel spans.

5. When the war come [sic] to an end in 1945 the British Army dismantled 3.95 kms. of track at the Thai-Burma border. The remaining length of 300 kms. was handed over to the State Railway of Thailand in 1947. With due and careful consideration in regard to transport economic as well as other aspects, the State Railway of Thailand was authorised to dismantle the track from the end of the line to Nam Tok Station and to upgrade the remaining length of 130.204 kms. to Nong Pladuk Station conforming to operational permanent way standard. Subsequently, the section between Nong Pladuk and Kanchanaburi Stations was officially opened to traffic on 24 June 1949, between Kanchanaburi and Wang Pho Stations on 1 April 1952 and the last section from Wang Pho to Nam Tok Stations on 1 July 1958.

Allied prisoners of war (POWs) engaged in bridge building at Tamarkan, fifty five kilometres north of Nong Pladuk (also known as Non Pladuk) and five kilometres south of Kanchanaburi (Kanburi).

A view of Tamarkan prisoner of war (POW) camp showing rows of huts with thatched attap roofs and open walls.

Approximately two kilometres north of Kanchanaburi (Kanburi) on the bank of the Kwai Noi river.

Temporary wooden crosses on the graves of Allied soldiers (prisoners of war (POWs)) in the Chungkai cemetery.


Du Fu

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Du Fu, Wade-Giles romanization Tu Fu, also called Du Gongbu or Du Shaoling, courtesy name (zi) Zimei, (born 712, Gongxian, Henan province, China—died 770, on a riverboat between Danzhou [now Changsha] and Yueyang, Hunan province), Chinese poet, considered by many literary critics to be the greatest of all time.

Born into a scholarly family, Du Fu received a traditional Confucian education but failed in the imperial examinations of 735. As a result, he spent much of his youth traveling. During his travels he won renown as a poet and met other poets of the period, including the great Li Bai. After a brief flirtation with Daoism while traveling with Li Bai, Du Fu returned to the capital and to the conventional Confucianism of his youth. He never again met Li Bai, despite his strong admiration for his older, freewheeling contemporary.

During the 740s Du Fu was a well-regarded member of a group of high officials, even though he was without money and official position himself and failed a second time in an imperial examination. He married, probably in 741. Between 751 and 755 he tried to attract imperial attention by submitting a succession of literary products that were couched in a language of ornamental flattery, a device that eventually resulted in a nominal position at court. In 755 during An Lushan’s rebellion, Du Fu experienced extreme personal hardships. He escaped, however, and in 757 joined the exiled court, being given the position of censor. His memoranda to the emperor do not appear to have been particularly welcome he was eventually relieved of his post and endured another period of poverty and hunger. Wandering about until the mid-760s, he briefly served a local warlord, a position that enabled him to acquire some land and to become a gentleman farmer, but in 768 he again started traveling aimlessly toward the south. Popular legend attributes his death (on a riverboat on the Xiang River) to overindulgence in food and wine after a 10-day fast.

Du Fu’s early poetry celebrated the beauty of the natural world and bemoaned the passage of time. He soon began to write bitingly of war—as in “Bingqu xing” (“The Ballad of the Army Carts”), a poem about conscription—and with hidden satire—as in “Liren xing” (“The Beautiful Woman”), which speaks of the conspicuous luxury of the court. As he matured, and especially during the tumultuous period of 755 to 759, his verse began to sound a note of profound compassion for humanity caught in the grip of senseless war.

Du Fu’s paramount position in the history of Chinese literature rests on his superb classicism. He was highly erudite, and his intimate acquaintance with the literary tradition of the past was equaled only by his complete ease in handling the rules of prosody. His dense, compressed language makes use of all the connotative overtones of a phrase and of all the intonational potentials of the individual word, qualities that no translation can ever reveal. He was an expert in all poetic genres current in his day, but his mastery was at its height in the lüshi, or “regulated verse,” which he refined to a point of glowing intensity.


British Royal Family History

Elizabeth II has reigned for 69 years, 4 months, and 14 days.

Queen Elizabeth II became Queen of the United Kingdom and Head of the Commonwealth on 6th February 1952. She is head of the British Royal Family, has 4 children, 8 grandchildren and 11 great-grandchildren, and is 95 years, 2 months, old.

She is the 32nd great-granddaughter of King Alfred the Great who was the first effective King of England 871-899. See Royal Family Tree.

She was crowned at Westminster Abbey on 2nd June 1953, nearly eighteen months after she succeeded her father, King George VI who died on 6th February 1952. As of today she has reigned for 69 years, 4 months, and 14 days. 2nd June 2013 was the 60th anniversary of her coronation. She will have reigned for 70 years on 6th February 2022 and plans are being put in place to stage a series of events from 2-5 June 2022 to celebrate her 70th Platinum Jubilee.

On 21st December 2007 she became the oldest reigning British monarch having lived longer than Queen Victoria who died 22nd January 1901 aged 81 years, 7 months and 29 days. On 20th November 2020 Queen Elizabeth II celebrated her 73rd wedding anniversary. On 21st April 2020 she became 94 years old.

On 10th September 2015 Queen Elizabeth II became the longest reigning monarch in over 1,200 years of British History when the length of her reign surpassed her great-great-grandmother Queen Victoria who reigned for 63 years and 7 months from 20th June 1837 to 22nd January 1901. See British Kings & Queens by Length of Reign.

2017 was the 100th anniversary of the House of Windsor. It was founded by the Queen's grandfather King George V on 17th July 1917.

The Queen and her husband Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, were married on 20th November 1947 at Westminster Abbey, and in 2020 celebrated their 73rd wedding anniversary. Prince Philip died at Windsor on 9th April 2021 just 2 months before his 100th birthday. He was the longest ever serving royal consort and oldest spouse of a reigning British monarch.

Their eldest son Prince Charles became 72 years old on 14th November 2020 and is the longest waiting and oldest ever heir to the throne. See British Kings & Queens by Age of Ascent.

On 29th April 2011 the Queen's grandson Prince William, who is 2nd in line to the throne, married Catherine (Kate) Middleton in Westminster Abbey. They are now the Duke and Duchess of Cambridge, and in Scotland the Earl and Countess of Strathearn. On 22nd July 2013 their first child Prince George was born. He is now 3rd in Line of Succession to the thone after his father, Prince William, and his grandfather Prince Charles. Their second child Princess Charlotte was born on 2nd May 2015 and is 4th in line. Their 3rd child, Prince Louis who is 5th in line, was born on 23rd April 2018.

The Queen's grandson Prince Henry (known as Harry), who is 6th in line to the throne, and Meghan Markle were married in St George's Chapel, Windsor Castle, on 19th May 2018. They are now the Duke and Duchess of Sussex, and in Scotland the Earl and Countess of Dumbarton. Their son Archie was born on 6th May 2019, and their daughter Lilibet on 4th June 2021. They have stepped down from their royal roles and now live in California.

The Queen's granddaughter Princess Eugenie married Jack Brooksbank in St George's Chapel on the 12th October 2018. Their first child August Philip was born on 9th February 2021. Her sister Princess Beatrice married Edoardo Mapelli Mozzi in the Royal Chapel of All Saints, Windsor, on 17th July 2020.

Elizabeth II is Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, and Head of the Commonwealth of Nations. Great Britain was formed 310 years ago by the Act of Union between England and Scotland on 1st April 1707. More about Great Britain and the United Kingdom.

As well as the United Kingdom, she is Queen of Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Jamaica, Barbados, the Bahamas, Grenada, Papua New Guinea, the Solomon Islands, Tuvalu, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Antigua and Barbuda, Belize, and Saint Kitts and Nevis, where she is represented by Governors-General. The sixteen countries of which she is Queen are known as Commonwealth Realms, and their combined population is 150 million.

She is Head of the Commonwealth of Nations comprising 54 member states and over 20% of the Word's land in North America, South America, Europe, Africa, Asia and Oceania. The aims of the Commonwealth include the promotion of democracy, human rights, good governance, the rule of law, individual liberty, egalitarianism, free trade, multilateralism, and world peace. The 2.4 billion people in the member states account for almost a third of the world's population.

Her reign of over 69 years has seen 14 Prime Ministers of the United Kingdom, and numerous Prime Ministers in the Commonwealth Realms of which she is (or was) also Head of State between them she has had a total of over 170 Prime Ministers including 12 Canadian and 18 Australian Prime Ministers during her reign. There have been 14 US Presidents during her reign.


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